Welcome to Science 10: chemistry 10This is the textbook BC Science 10 link for unit 2

The text below includes handouts used in the course and additional resources that I consider useful. Please e-mail any links you have found useful. Thanks.

Chemical Reactions and Radioactivity
acids, alpha particle, atomic number, atoms, bases, beta particle, Bohr diagrams, bromothymolblue,
catalyst, combustion, compounds, concentration, conservation of mass, covalent bonding, decomposition,
electron ,fission, fusion, gamma radiation, half-life, indigocarmine, inorganic ,ionic bonding, ions ,isotope,
Lewis diagrams, light, litmus paper, mass number, methylorange, molecules, neutralization (acid􀈬base),
neutron, organic, phenolphthalein , polyatomic, proton, radioactive decay, salts, single and double
replacement, surface area, symbolic equations,synthesis, valence electron

  • acids,bases,and salts
  • common ionic and covalent compounds
  • organic and inorganic compounds
  • chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single and double replacement ,neutralization, combustion)
  • conservation of mass
  • radioactivity

Skills and Attitudes
  • draw and interpret Bohr models
  • draw and interpret Lewis diagrams for compounds containing single bonds
  • name and write chemical formulae for common ionic and covalent compounds, using appropriate terminology
  • use standardized tests for acids and bases
  • write and balance chemical equations
  • write and balance nuclear equations
  • use molecular models
  • use the periodic table and ion charts
  • demonstrate respect for precision

Chapter four: Atomic Theory explains the formation of compounds

4.1 Atomic Theory and Bonding

Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
C1 differentiate between atoms, ions,and molecules using knowledge of their structure
and components
- demonstrate knowledge of the three subatomic particles, their properties,and their location within the atom(e.g., by creating
- define and give examples of ionic bonding (e.g.,metal and non- metal) and covalent bonding(e.g.,two non-metals,diatomic
- with reference to elements 1 o 20 on the periodic table, draw and interpret Bohr models, including protons, neutrons,
and electrons, of
  • - atoms(neutral)
  • - ions(charged)
  • - molecules covalent bonding(e.g.,O2,CH4)
  • - ionic compounds(e.g.,CaCl2)
- identify valence electrons using the periodic table (excluding lanthanides and actinides)
- distinguish between paired and unpaired electrons for a single
- draw and interpret Lewis diagrams showing single bonds for simple ionic compounds and covalent molecules
(e.g.,NaCl, MgO,BaBr2,H2O,CH4,NH3)
- distinguish between lone pair sand bonding pairs of electrons in molecules

To understand Atomic History: The Atom in History and Rutherford scattering (discovery of the nucleus) Introduction to ChemistryThe Atom
To make sense of the periodic table:
1. general information on the The Periodic table and utube videos about each element
2. interactive periodic table. Choose your own element!More than one type of periodic table!
To identify subatomic particles: Subatomic particles and chemical charge in preparation for chemical formulae. Build an atom.
To identify absorption spectra for elements: click on elements in this periodic tableand Video lesson on periodic table
To get a head start on quantum mechanics (chemistry 11), check out this applet.
To understand molecules in motion (gas laws and kinetic molecular theory and more). Diffusion and osmosisacross a memberane (cell)

4.2 Names and Formulas

Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
C2 classify substances as acids, bases, or salts, based on their characteristics, name, and formula
- identify acids and bases using indicators (e.g., methylorange, bromthymolblue, litmus, phenolphthalein, indigocarmine)
- explain the significance of the pH scale, with reference to
common substances
- differentiate between acids, bases,and salts with respect to chemical formulae and properties
- recognize the names and formulae of common acids (e.g.,hydrochloric,sulphuric,nitric,acetic)
- use the periodic table to explain the classification of elements as metals and nonmetals
- identify the relative reactivity of elements in the alkali metal,alkaline earth metal,halogen, and noble gas groups
- distinguish between metaloxide solutions (basic) and Non-metal oxide solutions(acidic)
- use the periodic table and a list of ions (including polyatomic ions) to name and write chemical formulae for common ionic compounds, using appropriate terminology (e.g.,Roman numerals)
- convert names to formulae and formulae to names for covalent compounds, using prefixes up to deca

Check out Ionic Compounds and Covalent compounds and Lewis Dot Stuctures for instructions. Lesson on Lewis Dot Structuresand lesson on combining capacities. The following documents provide practice in writing and naming covalent and ionic formulae. Use your textbook for instructions. Lesson on ions and isotopes.
Lesson on ionic formulae.
Lesson on naming ionic formulae.
Lesson on covalent bonds.
Lesson on metallic bonds.
Lesson on transition metals.

This document is our lab for this unit.

4.3 Chemical Reactions
Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
C4 analyse chemical reactions, including reference to conservation of mass and rate of reaction
- define and explain the law of conservation of mass
- represent chemical reactions and the conservation of atoms using molecular models
- write and balance (using the lowest whole number coefficients) chemical equations from formulae, word equations,
or descriptions o fexperiments
- identify,giveevidencefor,predictproductsof,andclassifythefollowingtypesofchemicalreactions:
  • - synthesis(combination)
  • - decomposition
  • - singleanddoublereplacement
  • - neutralization(acid-base)
  • - combustion
- explain how factors such a temperature, concentration, presence of a catalyst ,and surface area can affect the rate of chemical reactions

PhET sites are well known for their excellent simulaitons. Lesson on balancing reactions. Check out this site for chemical balancing. This site is a game that teaches you chemical balancing in a fun way (sorry for all the advertising!) This websiteexplains the process of balancing reaction equations clearly. The following website provides excellent practices and answers keys for1. Writing and balancing equations.2. Determining reaction types and predicting products (section 6.1)3. Chemistry 11 Mole concepts and practices.4. Lesson on reaction types.

Chapter five: Compounds are classified in different ways
Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
C3 distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds
- define organic compounds and inorganic compounds
- distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds, based on their chemical structures
- recognize a compound as organic or inorganic from its name, from its chemical formula, or from a diagram or model

5.1 Acids and Bases
Lesson on acids and bases. Check out this site for acid and bases and pH scale information. More information on pH scale (chem 12 parts). Calculations with acid and bases (logarithms), buffers, weak acids and weak bases are chemistry 12 topics and titrations are introduced in chemistry 11. This acid-base lab is done in pairs.

5.2 Salts
Identifying salts using flame test simulations. Everything you ever wanted to know about sodium chloride, one of many thousands of types of salts.

5.3 Organic Compounds
This applet teaches multiple ways for organic molecular modelling in an interactive way. Excellent introduction to organic bonding and naming. This site is very advanced organic chemistry and uses quantum mechanic principles to explain carbon bonding.

Chapter six: Chemical reactions occur in predictable ways6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions
There are two labs for this unit. The first lab is a teacher demonstration and the second lab is done in pairs.

6. 2 Factors Affecting the Rate of Chemical Reactions

Complete lab in your textbook.

Chapter seven: The Atomic Theory Explains Radioactivity
Prescribed Learning Outcomes:
C5 explain radioactivity using modernatomictheory
- define isotope in terms of atomic number and mass number, recognizing how these are communicated in standard atomic notation(e.g.,Uranium-238: 238U92 )
- relate radioactive decay(e.g.,alpha,beta,gamma) to changes in the nucleus
- relate the following subatomic particles to radioactive decay:
  • - proton( 1 p1 )
  • - neutron( 1n0 )
  • - electron( 0e-1 )
  • - alphaparticle( 4α2 )( 4He2 )
  • - betaparticle( 0β1 )
- explain half-life with reference to rates of radioactive decay
- compare fission and fusion
- complete and balance nuclear equations to illustrate radio-active decay,fission, and fusion

7.1 Atomic Theory, Isotopes, and Radioactive Decay
Alpha decay simulation, beta decay Lesson on nuclear chemistry.

7.2 Half-life
7.3 Nuclear ReactionsCheck out nuclear fission. How nuclear science works.Applications: radioactive dating, microwaves, and lesson on nuclear fission and fusion.